Ten most important findings

by Harri Hemilä


Department of Public Health
University of Helsinki, Finland
harri.hemila@helsinki.fi
http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/home/hemila
Oct 30, 2020

1. Zinc lozenges shorten the duration of the common cold
http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/home/hemila/Zinc.htm

2. Vitamin C can decrease the incidence of atrial fibrillation and the duration of ICU stay
http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/home/hemila/VitC_AF.htm

3. Vitamin C may decrease FEV1 decline caused by exercise by 50% (2013)
http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/home/hemila/VitC_asthma.htm

4. vitamin E may increase life expectancy by 2 years in some groups of males
http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/home/hemila/VitE_mortality.htm

5. Vitamin E supplementation decreases the risk of pneumonia in some groups of males
http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/home/hemila/VitE_respinf.htm
http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/home/hemila/VitCE_exercise.htm

6. Vitamin C supplementation decreases the risk of the common cold by 50% in people under heavy acute physical stress (1996)
https://helda.helsinki.fi/handle/10138/225864 
http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/home/hemila/VitCE_exercise.htm

7. Vitamin C (>1 g/d) shortens the duration of the common cold in adults by 8% and in children by 18% (2013)
http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/home/hemila/VitC_colds.htm

8. Three controlled trials found that vitamin C supplementation decreases the incidence of pneumonia by >80% (1997)
http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/home/hemila/VitC_pneumonia.htm

9. Thomas Chalmers' influential review (1975) on vitamin C and the common cold is inconsistent with original reports and there are calculation errors and has misled the public opinion on vitamin C for over 4 decades (1995)
    Section in 2006 thesis discussing the same topic 
    https://helda.helsinki.fi/handle/10138/20335   see pp. 36-38

10. The most influential RCT on vitamin C and the common cold by Thomas Karlowski and Thomas Chalmers et al. (1975) was analyzed erroneously and misled the public opinion on vitamin C for 4 decades (1996)
    Section in 2006 thesis discussing the same topic 
    https://helda.helsinki.fi/handle/10138/20335   see pp. 21-27
    Dissent and Response:
    http://hdl.handle.net/10250/8079
    http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/home/hemila/H/HH_1996_JCE2.pdf

    Who was Thomas Chalmers:
    http://www.nytimes.com/1995/12/29/nyregion/dr-thomas-c-chalmers-a-president-of-mt-sinai-dies-at-78.html
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_C._Chalmers
    http://www.jameslindlibrary.org/articles/thomas-c-chalmers-1917-1995
    https://circulatingnow.nlm.nih.gov/2014/12/18/thomas-c-chalmers-clinical-research-pragmatist
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2878827    David Sackett describes in this paper that Thomas Chalmers' 1955 clinical trial report changed his career and led to the emergence of the EBM movement
    https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g371  According to Richard Smith and Drummond Rennie, Thomas Chalmers was one of the "three individuals from an earlier generation [who] were particularly important in inspiring" the EBM movement
    http://annals.org/aim/fullarticle/709574/tributes-thomas-chalmers
    http://annals.org/aim/fullarticle/709576/tributes-thomas-chalmers
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1335248
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1335469
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(96)90369-4
    https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1996.03540080078041
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0197-2456(96)90026-4
    https://doi.org/10.1016/S0197-2456(97)82189-7
    http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0141076815586354
    http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0141076815606279