Vitamin C and E and exercise

by Harri Hemila

Department of Public Health
University of Helsinki, Finland
harri.hemila@helsinki.fi
http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/home/hemila
Dec 5
, 2017

  1. Vitamin C and exercise

    1. Systematic reviews and original papers

    2. Letters and comments

  2. Vitamin E and exercise

    1. Original papers

    2. Letters and comments

Vitamin C and exercise

Systematic reviews and original papers

In 3 RCTs vitamin C halved the FEV1 decline caused by exercise:

Hemila H.
The effect of vitamin C on bronchoconstriction and respiratory symptoms caused by exercise: a review and statistical analysis.
Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology 2014;10:58
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1710-1492-10-58
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4363347

Hemila H
Vitamin C may alleviate exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: a meta-analysis
BMJ Open 2013;3:e002416
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002416
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3686214

Heavy short-term physical stress subgroup in this analysis:
Hemila H, Chalker EB
Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold.
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013; CD000980
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD000980.pub4
https://helda.helsinki.fi/handle/10138/225864
http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/home/hemila/CC/CC.htm
References to the review:
http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/home/hemila/CC

Vitamin C halved the duration of colds in male adolescent swimmers but not in female adolescent swimmers:
Constantini NW, Dubnov-Raz G, Eyal BB, Berry EM, Cohen AH, Hemila H
The effect of vitamin C on upper respiratory infections in adolescent swimmers: a randomized trial
European Journal of Pediatrics 2011;170:59-63
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-010-1270-z
https://helda.helsinki.fi/handle/10138/228085
http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/home/hemila/H/HH_2011_EurJPediatr.pdf 

Effects of vitamin C on military personnel may be explained by heavy physical stress or/and crowding of people:
Hemila H
Vitamin C supplementation and respiratory infections: a systematic review.
Military Medicine 2004;169:920-925
http://dx.doi.org/10.7205/MILMED.169.11.920
http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/home/hemila/H/HH_2004.pdf

The first meta-analysis on the effect of vitamin C on people under heavy short-term physical stress which was based on 3 RCTs; after this paper 4 new RCTs found benefit of vitamin C for heavy short-term physical stress (see the Cochrane review above)
Hemila H
Vitamin C and common cold incidence: a review of studies with subjects under heavy physical stress.
International Journal of Sports Medicine 1996;17:379-383
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-972864
https://helda.helsinki.fi/handle/10138/225881
http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/home/hemila/H/HH_1996_IJSM.pdf

Letters and comments

Hemila H
Vitamin C should be tested against exercise-induced bronchoconstriction
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2013;188(11):1370.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201307-1205LE


Meta-analysis of 3 exercise-induced asthma trials and pointing out errors in the Cochrane review
This was expanded to the BMJ Open paper in 2013, see above

The Cochrane review on vitamin C and asthma misled readers for a decade from 2001 to 2013
Hemila H.
Feedback [Comments on the Cochrane review “vitamin C supplementation for asthma” by Kaur B, Rowe BH, Stovold E]
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Feedback 24 March 2009
https://helda.helsinki.fi/handle/10138/225865
https://helda.helsinki.fi/handle/10138/38500
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD000993.pub3
    The above comment was submitted in 2009, but the authors replied no earlier than in 2012.
    Furthermore, the reply was full of errors:

    Hemila H
   
Vitamin C and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction:
    further problems in the Cochrane review "vitamin C for asthma" (2013).

    Unpublished commentary
    http://hdl.handle.net/10138/40816

Hemila H
Vitamin C and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in athletes
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2009:123:274-275
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2008.10.004
http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/home/hemila/H/2009_L_JACI_1.pdf

Comments on vitamin C and exercise studies:
Hemila H
Evidence-based medicine and the role of antioxidants in physically-stressed people
Nutrition Reviews 2009;67:61-63
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2008.00134.x
https://helda.helsinki.fi/handle/10138/228068
http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/home/hemila/H/2009_L_NutRev.pdf

Hemila H
Vitamin C and exercise-induced immunodepression
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007;61:1241-1242
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602751
https://helda.helsinki.fi/handle/10250/135144 http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/home/hemila/H/2007_L_EJCN.pdf

Hemila H
The effect of nutrition on exercise-induced immunodepression
Nutrition Reviews 2006;64:476-477
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2006.tb00179.x
http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/home/hemila/H/2006_L_NutRev.pdf

Vitamin E and exercise

Original papers


Vitamin E may decrease the incidence of pneumonia in elderly males by 72% if they are not smoking 

Hemila H.
Vitamin E administration may decrease the incidence of pneumonia in elderly males.
Clinical Interventions in Aging 2016;11:1379-1385
https://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S114515
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5055121

Effect of vitamin E on pneumonia is modified by exercise:

Hemila H, Kaprio J.
Subgroup analysis of large trials can guide further research: a case study of vitamin E and pneumonia.
Clinical Epidemiology 2011;3:51-59
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CLEP.S16114
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3046185
Prepublication history:
http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/home/hemila/PPH/CE/CE.html

Effect of vitamin E on pneumonia is modified by exercise:
Hemila H, Kaprio J, Albanes D, Virtamo J.
Physical activity and pneumonia in male smokers administered vitamin E and β-carotene.
International Journal of Sports Medicine 2006;27:336-341
https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2005-865670
https://helda.helsinki.fi/handle/10138/18749 


Vitamin E does not influence colds in middle-aged men doing exercises:
Hemila H, Virtamo J, Albanes D, Kaprio J.
Physical activity and the common cold in men administered vitamin E and β-carotene.
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2003;35:1815-1820
http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000093616.60899.92
http://hdl.handle.net/10138/18380  

Letters and comments

Comments on vitamin E and exercise studies:
Hemila H
Evidence-based medicine and the role of antioxidants in physically-stressed people
Nutrition Reviews 2009;67:61-63
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2008.00134.x
https://helda.helsinki.fi/handle/10138/228068
http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/home/hemila/H/2009_L_NutRev.pdf 

Hemila H
The effect of nutrition on exercise-induced immunodepression
Nutrition Reviews 2006;64:476-477
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2006.tb00179.x
http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/home/hemila/H/2006_L_NutRev.pdf