Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold

Cochrane review doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000980.pub4

                               HTML     Fig2   Fig3

by Harri Hemilš, Elizabeth Chalker

 

A brief but still relevant summary of the Cochrane review: PLoS Med 2005
Another short review on vitamin C and the Common Cold: Trend Immunol 2003
          See Discussion of the Cochrane review in Evidence-Based Child Health 2008
                 Hemilš Reply   Hemilš Rep 1 manu   Hemilš Rep 2 manu


References available via internet:

Contents

  1. Included trials
  2. Excluded trials
  3. Other references

Harri Hemilš
Department of Public Health
University of Helsinki,  Helsinki, Finland
harri.hemila@helsinki.fi
  Home:  http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/home/hemila

Location of this file:  http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/home/hemila/CC
Papers on vitamin C and the common cold:
http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/home/hemila/vitc_colds.htm

Version  Oct 26, 2014

The impact of Linus Pauling in the initiation of the series of
controlled trials in the 1970s: see a brief summary with links at:
 http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/home/hemila/pauling 

For the problems in early influential meta-analyses and reviews
on vitamin C and the common cold, see summaries at:
 http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/home/hemila/reviews



Included trials

Abbott 1968 ch  Abbott 1968 bm   Abbott 1968 PubMed

Anderson 1972 PMC  *    Correction 1: (1973);108:133    Correction 2: (1973);108:492
   Anderson 1972 ch
   Anderson 1975 AnnNY
   Beaton 1971 PMC
   Preshaw 1972 PMC
   Spero 1973 letter BMJ
   Pauling NB 18 99   Pauling NB 18 100   Pauling NB 18 101

Anderson 1974 PMC    Anderson 1974 ch
   Pauling NB 18 121    Pauling NB 18 122

Anderson 1975 PMC    Anderson 1975 ch

Asfora 1977 ch          Asfora 1977 bm

Audera 2001  Audera 2001   Audera 2001   Audera 2001 ch   Audera 2001 PubMed


Bancalari 1984 Translation   
   Bancalari 1984 in Spanish ch   Bancalari 1984 in Spanish bm

Briggs 1984 ch   Briggs 1984 bm

Brown 1945       Brown 1945 bm
        Manwaring 1945 commentary


Carr 1981 ch    Carr 1981 bm   Carr 1981 (1200 KB)   Carr 1981 PubMed
   Carr 1981 MJA ch    Carr 1981 MJA bm    Carr 1981 MJA PubMed
   Carr 1981 Clin Chem    Carr 1981 Clin Chem PubMed
   Martin 1982

Carson 1975 Doi       Carson 1975 ch    Carson 1975 bm
   Carson 1974 BMJ letter PMC   Carson 1974 BMJ letter BMJ   Carson 1974 ch

Charleston 1972 Doi    Charleston 1972 ch   Charleston 1972 bm   Charleston 1972 PubMed
    Clegg 1974 ch   Clegg 1974 bm   Clegg 1974 PubMed
    See meta-analysis of UK trials in  Hemilš 1997a

Clegg 1975 AJCN   Clegg 1975 PubMed 
    Clegg 1975 Abstract pp 7A-8A doi   Clegg 1975 Abstract pp 7A-8A  
    See meta-analysis of UK trials in  Hemilš 1997a

Constantini 2011 Doi   Constantini 2011 PubMed   Constantini 2009 Poster

Coulehan 1974 Doi   Coulehan 1974 ch   Coulehan 1974 bm     Coulehan 1974 PubMed
     Coulehan 1975 AnnNY    Coulehan 1975 PubMed

Coulehan 1976 Doi    Coulehan 1976 ch     Coulehan 1976 bm     Coulehan 1976 PubMed
    Coulehan 1977 Letter NEJM

Cowan 1942 Doi    Cowan 1942 ch   Cowan 1942 bm
    Pauling NB 31 96   Pauling NB 31  97    Pauling NB 31  98
    Pauling NB 31 99   Pauling NB 31 100   Pauling NB 31 101   Pauling NB 33 29

Cowan 1950 Doi   Cowan 1950 ch (59 KB)      Cowan 1950 bm (182 KB)    Cowan 1950 PubMed


Dahlberg 1944 Doi  Dahlberg 1944 ch (172 KB)   Dahlberg 1944 bm (649 KB) 
    Pauling NB 33 23    Pauling NB 33 24   Pauling NB 33 25   Pauling NB 33 26
    Pauling NB 33 27    Pauling NB 33 28   Pauling NB 33 29

Dick 1990 ch     Dick 1990 bm
    Mink 1988 ch     Mink 1988 bm
    Shult 1990 ch     Shult 1990 bm


Elliott 1973 ch   Elliott 1973 bm
   Pauling NB 18 91   Pauling NB 18 92   Pauling NB 18 95   Pauling NB 18 96

Elwood 1976 Doi   Elwood 1976 PMC  Elwood 1976 Jstor  Elwood 1976 ch    Elwood 1976 PubMed 
    See meta-analysis of UK trials in  Hemilš 1997a

Elwood 1977 ch    Elwood 1977 bm    Elwood 1977 PubMed

Franz 1956 Doi    Franz 1956 ch    Franz 1956 bm   Franz 1956 PubMed

Himmelstein 1996  Sedentary participants are included  Himmelstein 1996 (195 KB) 
Himmelstein 1998  Sedentary participants are included  Himmelstein 1998 html copy    Himmelstein 1998 pdf copy


Karlowski 1975 Doi   Karlowski 1975 ch    Karlowski 1975 bm     Karlowski 1975 PubMed
        Additional data published in Lewis 1975 Doi    Lewis 1975 ch    Lewis 1975 PubMed
        See a re-analysis of the Karlowski trial by Hemilš 1996
        and analysis of dose dependency in  Hemilš 1999a   and Hemilš 2006
        See comments on the re-analysis by Chalmers (1996)
        See reply to Chalmers by Hemilš (1996)
        See further statistical comments of the Karlowski trial in  Hemilš 2006 Stat Med   Hemilš 2006 Stat Med  manu


Liljefors 1972 ch   Liljefors 1972 bm

Ludvigsson 1977 ch   Ludvigsson 1977 bm    Ludvigsson 1977 PubMed 

Miller 1977 Doi    Miller 1977 ch  Miller 1977 bm   Miller 1977 PubMed 
       Discussion1   Discussion2
      Miller 1978 ch    Miller 1978 bm   Miller 1978 PubMed

Moolla 1996     Moolla 1996 University of Cape Town, search "Moolla"   Moolla 1996 Google


Peters 1993   Peters 1993 PubMed
     Peters 1994 Letter

Peters 1996 Journal's version, see p.23
Peters 1996 ch        Peters 1996 bm


Pitt 1979 Doi  Pitt 1979 ch    Pitt 1979 bm   Pitt 1979 PubMed 
    See meta-analysis of pneumonia trials in Hemilš 2007 

Regnier 1968 ch    Regnier 1968 bm

Ritzel 1961 Translation 
  Ritzel 1961 in German ch    Ritzel 1961 in German bm
  Ritzel 1976 letter       Ritzel 1976 Letter ch
  Ritzel biography ch   Ritzel biography bm
  Pauling NB 33 30     Pauling NB 33 33    


Sasazuki 2006   Sasazuki 2006 PubMed

Sabiston 1974 ch    Sabiston 1974 bm    Sabiston 1974 DRDS   Sabiston 1974 Abstract  

Scheunert 1949 ch   Scheunert 1949 bm

Schwartz 1973 Doi   Schwartz 1973 ch     Schwartz 1973 bm   Schwartz 1973 PubMed


Tebrock 1956 Doi     Tebrock 1956 ch   Tebrock 1956 bm  Tebrock 1956 PubMed

Tyrrell 1977 Doi     Tyrrell 1977 PMC  Tyrrell 1977 Jstor  Tyrrell 1977 ch   Tyrrell 1977 PubMed  
    See meta-analysis of UK trials in Hemilš 1997a and test of sex-vitamin C interaction in Hemila 2008

Van Straten 2002 Doi   Van Straten 2002 PubMed

Walker 1967 Doi    Walker 1967 PMC   Walker 1967 ch

Wilson 1973 Eur J Clin Pharmacol 6:196-202  Summary in Wilson 1975
   Wilson CWM, Loh HS (1973c) Common cold and vitamin C. Lancet 301:638-41  
   comments in:  Kinlen L, Peto R (1973) Vitamin C and colds [letter]. Lancet 301:944 ** reply in  (1973);301:1058-9 
   Wilson CWM, Loh HS, Foster FG (1973b) The beneficial effect of vitamin C on the common cold. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 6:26-32
  


Excluded trials

Baird 1979 AJCN   Baird 1979 PubMed
    See meta-analysis of UK trials in Hemilš 1997a  and test of sex-vitamin C interaction in Hemila 2008

Barnes 1961 ch     Barnes 1961 bm    Barnes 1961 PubMed

Bartley 1953 ch    Bartley 1953 bm

Bessel-Lorck 1959 Translation
   Bessel-Lorck 1959 in German ch     Bessel-Lorck 1959 in German bm

Boines 1956 ch  Boines 1956 bm   Boines 1956 PubMed

Chavance 1993 ch   Chavance 1993 PubMed

Glazebrook 1942    Glazebrook 1942 ch
    Pauling NB 31 103   Pauling NB 33 34    Pauling NB 33 35 
    See meta-analysis of UK trials in  Hemilš 1997a 
    See meta-analysis of pneumonia trials in Hemilš 2007 

Gormly 1977 Doi   Gormly 1977 PubMed

Gorton 1999 Doi   Gorton 1999 PubMed

Himmelstein 1996  Marathon runners are excluded  Himmelstein 1996
Himmelstein 1998  Marathon runners are excluded  Himmelstein 1998 html copy    Himmelstein 1998 pdf copy

Hunt 1994 ch     Hunt 1994 bm     Hunt 1994 PubMed
    See meta-analysis of pneumonia trials in Hemilš 2007 

Kimbarowski 1967 translation  
    Kimbarowski 1967 German ch    Kimbarowski 1967 German bm
    Kimbarowski 1967 PubMed
    See meta-analysis of pneumonia trials in Hemilš 2007 

Koytchev 2003 PubMed

Maggini 2012   Maggini 2012 pdf   Maggini 2012 PubMed

Niemi 1951 Abstract in English   Niemi 1951



Other references Book chapter discussing the effect of vitamin C on the common cold:
Hemilš H. Vitamins and minerals [book chapter]. 
In: "Common cold " (Eccles R, Weber O, eds.)  Springer   Amazon   Amazon.uk  BarnesNoble
See Abstract and links to references  for the chapter

The Common Cold, general discussions via the net:

BBC Health
CDC
Common Cold Centre, Cardiff
MayoClinic
MedicineNet
MedlinePlus
NHS, UK
NIAID
NY Times Health
WebMD
Wikipedia



Other Citations in Cochrane Review

Akaike 2001
Anderson 1977   Anderson 1977 PubMed  
Other reviews by Anderson
    Anderson 1975 Ann NY Acad Sci    Anderson 1975 PubMed
    Anderson 1975 CanFamPhys PMC
    Anderson 1977 Nutr Today
    Anderson 1979 Am Pharm
Anderson 2008

Balk 2002
Bee 1980 ch   Bee 1980 bm    Bee 1980 PubMed 
Briggs 1984 Ref List

Campbell 1975 ch   Campbell 1975 bm   Campbell 1975 PubMed
Castro 2006 Doi
Cathcart 1981 doi    Cathcart 1981 PubMed   paper available via links
Chalmers 1975 Doi    Chalmers 1975 PubMed   Chalmers 1975 ch  Chalmers 1975 bm
   See problems of the Chalmers review: Hemilš 2006a  and Hemilš 1995  
Dykes 1975 Doi     Dykes 1975  Dykes 1975 PubMed   Dykes 1975 ch (365 KB)
   See problems of the Dykes review: Hemilš 2006a  and Hemilš 1996c

Eccles 2005 Doi
Eccles 2009 Doi
Gonzales 1997 Doi
Gotzsche 1989 Doi   Gotzsche 1989 ch   Gotzsche 1989 bm
   Gotzsche refers to: Braenden 1973 ch   Braenden 1973 bm
Heikkinen 2003 Doi

Hemilš 1992 Doi   Hemilš 1992         Hemilš 1992 Manu with links to Refs      Hemilš 1992 PubMed
Hemilš 1994 Doi    Hemilš 1994        Hemilš 1994 Manu with links to Refs      Hemilš 1994 PubMed 
Hemilš 1995 Doi   Hemilš 1995 Doi   Hemilš 1995 PubMed
Hemilš 1996a Doi  Hemilš 1996a      Hemilš 1996a Manu with links to Refs     Hemilš 1996a PubMed
   Discussion:  Chalmers 1996     Hemilš 1996d Manu with links to Refs     Hemilš 1996d    Hemilš 1996d 
Hemilš 1996b Doi   Hemilš 1996b     Hemilš 1996b Manu with links to Refs    Hemilš 1996b PubMed
Hemilš 1996c Doi    Hemila 1996c    Hemilš 1996c Manu with links to Refs    Hemilš 1996c PubMed
Hemilš 1997a Doi    Hemilš 1997a    Hemilš 1997a Manu with links to Refs    Hemilš 1997a PubMed  
     Discussion:  1997a comments  1997a comments
Hemilš 1997b                             Hemilš 1997b Manu with links to Refs   Hemilš 1997b PubMed
Hemilš 1997c immu    Hemilš 1997c inf     
Hemilš 1999a Doi      Hemilš 1999a   Hemilš 1999a Manu with links to Refs   Hemilš 1999a PubMed
Hemilš 1999b IJTLD    Hemilš 1999b                                                                    Hemilš 1999b PubMed  
Hemilš 2004 MilMed      Hemilš 2004                                                                      Hemilš 2004 PubMed

Hemilš 2006a    Hemilš 2006a    Hemilš 2006   Book version available at eg:  Amazon   Barnes&Noble 
Selected Thesis 2006 Chapters are available as html versions:
    History of vitamin C and its deficiency, scurvy
    Effects of vitamin C on the immune system
    Changes in vitamin C metabolism during infections
    The effect of vitamin C on animal infections
    Linus Pauling, vitamin C, and the common cold
    The most influential trial on vitamin C and the common cold: Karlowski et al. (1975)
    Problems with reviews on vitamin C and the common cold
    Problems in planning and analyzing the common cold trials
    The safety of vitamin C
    Fundamental concepts related to health
    Problems with Experts
  
Hemilš 2006b Doi                                                 Hemilš 2006b PubMed
Hemilš 2006c Doi    Hemilš 2006c manuscript    Hemilš  2006c PubMed 
Hemilš 2007 ( -- > 2013 update) Doi     Hemilš 2007 (>2013) as html
    References to the Cochrane review vitamin C and pneumonia
    See a short summary and discussion in: Hemilš 2008
Hemilš 2008 Doi   Hemila 2008   Hemilš 2008 Manu with links to refs
Hemilš 2009b Doi
Hemilš 2009c Doi    Hemilš 2009c Manu with links to refs
Hemilš 2011 Doi   Hemilš 2011

Higgins 2003 Doi
Higgins 2011
Hrobjartsson 2001    Correction   Discussion1  Discussion2
Hrobjartsson 2010
Ji 1999

Kleijnen 1989 in Dutch  Kleijnen 1989 in Dutch 2    Kleijnen 1989 in English
Kleijnen 1989 Ref List (34 KB) 
   See problems of the Kleijnen review: Hemilš 2006a
Kleijnen 1992 Doi    Kleijnen 1992 PubMed
Nualart 2003 JBC
Padayatty 2004 Doi 

Pauling 1970a book
   Wiki
   Links to book reviews of the 1970 book
   A short background to the book  
Pauling 1970b Doi     Pauling 1970b PMC
Pauling 1971a Doi      Pauling 1971a PMC     Pauling 1971a manuscript 
    Pauling NB 31 103
    Pauling NB 33 32
Pauling 1971b AJCN
Pauling 1976a book
    Links to book reviews of the 1976 book
    A short background to the book  
    Pauling NB 31 269
Pauling 1976b
Pauling 1976c

RevMan 2011
Shamseer 2008 Doi   Hemilš Reply
Thomas 1978 PMC

Wang 1997 Doi
Webb 2007 Doi
Wilson 1969 ch  Wilson 1969 bm


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