After Clarke, Ksepka, Stucchi, Urbina, Giannini, Bertelli, NarvŠez & Boyd, 2007 (fig. 3), Ksepka & Clarke, 2010 and Mayr, Scofield, De Pietri & Tennyson, 2017,
with details and species from Olson, 1985, Feduccia, 1980, 1996, Welsh, 2002, Bertelli & Giannini, 2005, Clarke, Ksepka, Salas-Gismondi, Altamirano, Shawkey, D'Alba, Vinther, DeVries & Baby, 2010, Ksepka, Fordyce, Ando & Jones, 2012, and Recent species from Sibley & Monroe, 1990, and Peterson, 2002-2004, and Finnish vernacular names from Lokki, Jännes & Nikander, 1992

<==o Sphenisciformes Sharpe, 1891 (penguins; pingviinilinnut)
   |--o †Waimanu Jones, Ando & Fordyce, in Slack, Jones, Ando, Harrison, Fordyce, Arnason & Penny, 2006; L.Pal., NZ.
   |  |-- †W. manneringi Jones, Ando & Fordyce, in Slack, Jones, Ando, Harrison, Fordyce, Arnason & Penny, 2006
   |  `-- †W. tuatahi Jones, Ando & Fordyce, in Slack, Jones, Ando, Harrison, Fordyce, Arnason & Penny, 2006
   `--+--†Kumimanu biceae Mayr, Scofield, De Pietri & Tennyson, 2017
      `--+--o †Delphinornis Wiman, 1905 [Notodyptes Marples, 1953; Palaeospheniscus in partim]
         |  |-- †D. gracilis [=? Palaeospheniscus gracilis]
         |  `--+-- †D. larseni Wiman, 1905 [D. larsenii]
         |     `--+-- †D. arctowskii Myrcha, Jadwiszczak, Tambussi, Noriega, Gazdzicki, Tatur & Valle, 2002
         |        `-- †D. wimani (Marples, 1953) Ksepka & Clarke, 2010 [Notodyptes wimani Marples, 1953; Archaeospheniscus wimani Simpson, 1971a; =? Palaeospheniscus wimani Ameghino, 1905]
         `--+--+-- †Marambiornis exilis Myrcha, Jadwiszczak, Tambussi, Noriega, Gazdzicki, Tatur & Valle, 2002
            |  `-- †Mesetaornis polaris Myrcha, Jadwiszczak, Tambussi, Noriega, Gazdzicki, Tatur & Valle, 2002
            `--+-- †Perudyptes devriesi Clarke, Ksepka, Stucchi, Urbina, Giannini, Bertelli, NarvŠez & Boyd, 2007
               `--+--o †Anthropornis Wiman, 1905 [Anthropornithinae Simpson, 1946]
                  |  |-- †A. sp. [UCMP 321023]
                  |  |-- †A. nordenskjoeldi Wiman, 1905 [Anthropornis nordenskjoldii Wiman, 1905; incl.? “Pachydyptessimpsoni Jenkins, 1974]
                  |  `-- †A. grandis (Wiman, 1905) [=? Paraptenodytes grandis Ameghino, 1894 (in partim?; =? Paraptenodytes grandis Ameghino, 1901 Pachypteryx grandis]
                  `--+--o †Palaeeudyptes Wiman, 1905 [Palaeeudyptinae]
                     |  |-- Burnside “Palaeeudyptes”
                     |  |-- †P. klekowskii Myrcha, Tatur & del Valle, 1990
                     |  `-- †P. gunnari (Wiman, 1905)
                     `--+--+-- †Icadyptes salasi Clarke, Ksepka, Stucchi, Urbina, Giannini, Bertelli, NarvŠez & Boyd, 2007
                        |  `-- †Pachydyptes ponderosus Oliver, 1930
                        `--+-- †Inkayacu paracasensis Clarke, Ksepka, Salas-Gismondi, Altamirano, Shawkey, D'Alba, Vinther, DeVries & Baby, 2010
                           `--+--o †Kairuku Ksepka, Fordyce, Ando & Jones, 2012 [Duntroon “Palaeeudyptes”] Olig. NZ.
                              |  |-- †K. waitaki Ksepka, Fordyce, Ando & Jones, 2012
                              |  `-- †K. grebneffi Ksepka, Fordyce, Ando & Jones, 2012
                              `--+-- †Duntroonornis parvus Marples, 1952
                                 |-- †Archaeospheniscus lowei Marples, 1952
                                 |-- †Archaeospheniscus lopdelli Marples, 1952
                                 `--+--o †Paraptenodytes Ameghino, 1891 [Isotremornis Ameghino, 1905; Metancylornis Ameghino, 1905][Paraptenodytinae]
                                    |  |?- †P. brodkorbi Simpson, 1972
                                    |  |?- †P. robustus Ameghino, 1894 [Arthrodytes grandis Ameghino 1901; Isotremornis nordenskjoldi Ameghino, 1905; Metancylornis curtus Ameghino, 1901; Paraptenodytes curtus Ameghino, 1901; Paraptenodytes grandis Ameghino, 1901; Paraptenodytes nordenskjoldi Ameghino, 1905]
                                    |  `-- †P. antarcticus Moreno & Mercerat, 1891 [Palaeospheniscus antarcticus; =? Palaeeudyptes antarcticus]
                                    `--+--o †Platydyptes Marples, 1952
                                       |  |?- †P. amiesi Marples, 1952
                                       |  |-- †P. marplesi Simpson, 1971 [=? Palaeeudyptes marplesi]
                                       |  `-- †P. novaezealandiae Oliver, 1930 [Pachydyptes novaezealandiae]
                                       `--+--o †“Palaeospheniscinae” [Palaeospheniscus Moreno & Mercerat 1891 sensu lato]
                                          |  |-- †Eretiscus tonnii (Simpson, 1981) Olson, 1986 [Microdytes tonnii Simpson, 1981; Eeretiscus Clarke et al. 2007 (lapsus calami)]
                                          |  |?- †Palaeospheniscus affinis Ameghino, 1905
                                          |  |?- †Palaeospheniscus gracilis Ameghino, 1899 [Neculus rothi Ameghino, 1905; Palaeospheniscus medianus Ameghino, 1905; Palaeospheniscus nereius Ameghino, 1901; Paraspheniscus nereius Ameghino, 1901;] [=? Delphinornis gracilis]
                                          |  |?- †Palaeospheniscus huxleyorum Simpson, 1973
                                          |  |?- †Palaeospheniscus intermedius Ameghino, 1905
                                          |  |?- †Palaeospheniscus interruptus Ameghino, 1905
                                          |  |?- †Palaeospheniscus planus Ameghino, 1905 [Pseudospheniscus planus Ameghino, 1905]
                                          |  |?- †Palaeospheniscus rothi Ameghino, 1905
                                          |  |?- †Palaeospheniscus wimani Ameghino, 1905 [Perispheniscus wimani] [=? Delphinornis wimani (Marples, 1953)]
                                          |  |?- †Palaeospheniscus concavus (Ameghino, 1905) [Pseudospheniscus concavus Ameghino, 1905]
                                          |  |?- †Treleudytes crassa Ameghino, 1905 [Paraptenodytes crassus]
                                          |  |-- †Palaeospheniscus patagonicus  Moreno & Mercerat 1891 [Palaeospheniscus menzbieri Moreno & Mercerat, 1891; Paraptenodytes patagonicus] [type?]
                                          |  |-- †Palaeospheniscus bergi Moreno & Mercerat, 1891
                                          |  `-- †Palaeospheniscus biloculata (Simpson, 1970) [†Chubutodyptes biloculata Simpson, 1970; Palaeospheniscus bilocular (Simpson, 1970)]
                                          `--+-- †Dege hendeyi Simpson, 1979
                                             |-- †Marplesornis novaezealandiae (Marples, 1960) Simpson, 1972 [Palaeospheniscus novaezealandiae Marples, 1960]
                                             `--o Spheniscidae Bonaparte, 1831 (Modern penguins; nykypingviinit)
                                                |--o Aptenodytes J.F. Miller, 1778 (kuningaspingviinit)
                                                |  |-- A. patagonicus J.F. Miller, 1778 (King Penguin; kuningaspingviini)
                                                |  `-- A. forsteri G.R. Gray, 1844 (Emperor Penguin; keisaripingviini)
                                                `--+?- †Pygoscelis calderensis Acosta Hospitaleche, Chavez & Fritis, 2006
                                                   |?- †Pygoscelis tyreei Simpson, 1972
                                                   |--o Pygoscelis Wagler, 1832 (mustapääpingviinit)
                                                   |  |-- P. antarcticus (J.R. Forster, 1781) [P. antarctica] (myssypingviini)
                                                   |  `--+-- P. papua (J.R. Forster, 1781) (valkokulmapingviini)
                                                   |     `-- P. adeliae (Hombron & Jacquinot, 1841) (jääpingviini)
                                                   `--+-- †“Pygoscelisgrandis Walsh & Suarez, 2006
                                                      |--+--o Eudyptula minor (J.R. Forster, 1781) Bonaparte, 1856 (sinipingviini)
                                                      |  |  |-- E. m. minor (sinipingviini)
                                                      |  |  `-- E. m. albosignata (liuskepingviini)
                                                      |  `--o Spheniscus Brisson, 1760 (silmälasipingviinit; juovapingviinit)
                                                      |     |?- †S. chilensis Emslie & Guerra Correa, 2003
                                                      |     |--+-- †S. megaramphus Stucchi et al, 2003
                                                      |     |  `-- †S. urbinai Stucchi, 2001
                                                      |     `--+-- †S. muizoni Göhlich, 2007
                                                      |        `--+--+-- S. demersus (Linnaeus, 1758) (afrikanpingviini)
                                                      |           |  `-- S. magellanicus (J.R. Forster, 1781) (patagonianpingviini)
                                                      |           `--+-- S. humboldti Meyen, 1834 (perunpingviini)
                                                      |              `-- S. mendiculus Sundevall, 1871 (galapagosinpingviini)
                                                      `--+-- Megadyptes antipodes (Hombron & Jacquinot, 1841) Milne-Edwards, 1880 (keltasilmäpinviini, hoiho)
                                                         `--+-- †Madrynornis mirandus Acosta Hospitaleche, Tambussi, Donato & Cozzuol, 2007
                                                            `--o Eudyptes Vieillot, 1816 (töyhtöpingviinit)
                                                               |?- †E. sp. [<Chatham Islands>]
                                                               |--+-- E. moseleyi [E. chrysocome moseleyi] (moseley's penguin)
                                                               |  `--+-- E. filholi Huttom, 1879 (Eastern Rockhopper Penguin)
                                                               |     `-- E. chrysocome (J.R. Forster, 1781) (rockhopper penguin; kalliotöyhtöpingviini)
                                                               `--+--+-- E. chrysolophus (Brandt, 1837) (kultatöyhtöpingviini)
                                                                  |  `-- E. schlegeli Finsch, 1876 (töyhtöpingviini)
                                                                  `--+-- E. sclateri Buller, 1888 (pystötöyhtöpingviini)
                                                                     `--+-- E. robustus Oliver, 1953 (snaressaartenpingviini)
                                                                        `-- E. pachyrhynchus G.R. Gray, 1845 (vuonopingviini)

Sphenisciformes incertae sedis:

Some are taxa not treated by Ksepka & Clarke, 2010, or Clarke et al., 2010

Anthropodyptes gilli Simpson, 1959
    †Apterodytes ictus Ameghino, 1901
    †Arthrodytes Ameghino, 1905
        †A. andrewsi (Ameghino, 1901) [Paraptenodytes andrewsi Ameghino, 190]
        ?†A. grandis [=? Anthropornis grandis]
        ?†A. ridgeniCrossvallia unienwillia Tambussi, Reguero, Marenssi & Santillana, 2005; L.Pal. Ant.
    †Ichtyopteryx Wiman, 1905 [Ichthyopteryx]
    †Inguza predemersus (Simpson, 1971) Simpson, 1975 [Spheniscus predemersus Simpson, 1971]
    †Kaiika maxwelli Fordyce & Thomas, 2011
    †Korora oliveri Marples, 1952
    †Nucleornis insolitus Simpson, 1979
    †Orthopteryx gigas Wiman, 1905
    †“Pachydyptessimpsoni Jenkins, 1974 [Anthropornis nordenskjoeldii in partim] [SAMA P14157]
    †Palaeeudyptes Huxley, 1859 [polyphyletic]
        †P. sp.1 [Australia]
        †P. sp.2 [New Zealand]
        †P. marplesi Brodkorb, 1963 [=? Platydyptes marplesi]
        †P. antarcticus Huxley, 1859
    †Pseudaptenodytes Simpson, 1970
        †P. minor Simpson, 1970
        †P. macraei Simpson, 1970
    †Tasidyptes hunteri van Tets & O'Connor, 1983
    †Tereingaornis moisleyi Scarlett, 1983
    †Tonniornis Tambussi, Acosta Hospitaleche, Reguero & Marenssi, 2006
        †T. mesetaensis Tambussi, Acosta Hospitaleche, Reguero & Marenssi, 2006
        †T. minimum Tambussi, Acosta Hospitaleche, Reguero & Marenssi, 2006
    †Wimanornis seymourensis Simpson, 1971 [Wimantornis lapsus calami]

After Mayr, Scofield, De Pietri & Tennyson, 2017 (fig. 3)

<==o Sphenisciformes
   |--o †Waimanu
   |  |-- †W. manneringi
   |  `-- †W. tuatahi
   `--+--†Kumimanu biceae
      `--+--o †Delphinornis
         |  |-- †D. gracilis
         |  `--+-- †D. larseni
         |     `--+-- †D. arctowskii
         |        `-- †D. wimani
         `--+--+-- †Marambiornis exilis
            |  `-- †Mesetaornis polaris
            `--+-- †Perudyptes devriesi
               `--+--o †Anthropornis
                  |  |-- †A. nordenskjoeldii
                  |  `-- †A. grandis
                  `--+--o †Palaeeudyptes
                     |  |-- †P. klekowskii
                     |  `-- †P. gunnari
                     `--+--+-- †Icadyptes salasi
                        |  `-- †Pachydyptes ponderosus
                        `--+-- †Inkayacu paracasensis
                           `--+--o †Kairuku
                              |  |-- †K. waitaki
                              |  `-- †K. grebneffi
                              `--+-- †Paraptenodytes antarcticus
                                 `--o Spheniscidae
                                    |-- Aptenodytes patagonicus
                                    `--+-- Pygoscelis papua
                                       `--+--+-- Eudyptula minor
                                          |  `-- Spheniscus demersus
                                          `--+-- Megadyptes antipodes
                                             `-- Eudyptes chrysocome

Reference(s):

  • Mayr, G., Scofield, R. P., De Pietri, V. L. & Tennyson, A. J. D., 2017: A Paleocene penguin from New Zealand substantiates multiple origins of gigantism in fossil Sphenisciformes.
    –Nature Communications: Vol. 8, #1, Art.nr. 1927, pp. 1-8 [doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-01959-6]

After Ksepka, & Clarke, 2010 (fig. 11)

<==o Sphenisciformes
   |-- †Waimanu manneringi
   |-- †Waimanu tuatahi
   `--+--o †Delphinornis
      |  |-- †D. gracilis
      |  |-- †D. larseni
      |  `--+-- †D. arctowskii
      |     `-- †D. wimani
      `--+-- †Marambiornis exilis
         |-- †Mesetaornis polaris
         `--+-- †Perudyptes devriesi
            `--+--o †Anthropornis
               |  |-- †A. sp. [UCMP 321023]
               |  |-- †A. nordenskjoeldii
               |  `-- †A. grandis
               `--+-- †Palaeeudyptes klekowskii
                  |-- †Palaeeudyptes gunnari
                  |-- †Pachydyptes ponderosus
                  |-- †Icadyptes salasi
                  |-- Burnside “Palaeeudyptes” [OM GL435]
                  `--+-- Duntroon “Palaeeudyptes [OM GL427, OM GL432]
                     `--+-- †Duntroonornis parvus
                        |-- †Archaeospheniscus lowei
                        |-- †Archaeospheniscus lopdelli
                        `--+-- †Paraptenodytes antarcticus
                           `--+--+-- †Platydyptes marplesi
                              |  `-- †Platydyptes novaezealandiae
                              `--+--+-- †Eretiscus tonnii
                                 |  |-- †Palaeospheniscus patagonicus
                                 |  |-- †Palaeospheniscus bergi
                                 |  `-- †Palaeospheniscus biloculata
                                 `--+-- †Dege hendeyi
                                    |-- †Marplesornis novaezealandiae
                                    `--o Spheniscidae
                                       |--o Aptenodytes
                                       |  |-- A. patagonicus
                                       |  `-- A. forsteri
                                       `--+-- †Pygoscelis grandis
                                          |--o Pygoscelis
                                          |  |-- P. adeliae
                                          |  `--+-- P. papua
                                          |     `-- P. antarctica
                                          `--+--+-- Eudyptula minor
                                             |  `--o Spheniscus
                                             |     |-- †S. megaramphus
                                             |     |-- †S. urbinai
                                             |     |-- †S. muizoni
                                             |     |-- †S. chilensis
                                             |     `--+--+-- S. demersus
                                             |        |  `-- S. magellanicus
                                             |        `--+-- S. humboldti
                                             |           `-- S. mendiculus
                                             `--+-- Megadyptes antipodes
                                                `--+-- †Madrynornis mirandus
                                                   `--o Eudyptes
                                                      |--+-- E. moseleyi
                                                      |  `--+-- E. filholi
                                                      |     `-- E. chrysocome
                                                      `--+--+-- E. chrysolophus
                                                         |  `-- E. schlegeli
                                                         `--+-- E. sclateri
                                                            `--+-- E. robustus
                                                               `-- E. pachyrhynchus

References(s):

  • Ksepka, D. T. & Clarke, J. A., 2010: The basal penguin (Aves: Sphenisciformes) Perudyptes devriesi and a phylogenetic evaluation of the penguin fossil record.
    –Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History: #337, pp. 1-77

After Clarke, Ksepka, Stucchi, Urbina, Giannini, Bertelli, NarvŠez & Boyd, 2007 (fig. 3)

<==o Sphenisciformes
   |-- †Waimanu manneringi
   |-- †Waimanu tuatahi
   `--+-- †Delphinornis larseni
      `--+-- †Marambiornis exilis
         |-- †Mesetaornis polaris
         `--+-- †Perudyptes devriesi
            `--+--o †Anthropornis
               |  |-- †A. nordenskjoeldii
               |  `-- †A. grandis
               `--+-- †Palaeeudyptes klekowskii
                  |-- †Palaeeudyptes gunnari
                  `--+-- †Palaeeudyptes sp. [OM C.48:73-81]
                     |-- †Pachydyptes ponderosus
                     |-- †Icadyptes salasi
                     `--+-- †Palaeeudyptes sp. [OM C.47:25]
                        |-- †Palaeeudyptes sp. [OM C.47:23A]
                        `--+-- †Archaeospheniscus lowei
                           |-- †Archaeospheniscus lopdelli
                           `--+-- †Paraptenodytes antarcticus
                              |-- †Platydyptes amiesi
                              `--+--+-- †Platydyptes marplesi
                                 |  `-- †Platydyptes novaezealandiae
                                 `--+--+-- †Palaeospheniscus patagonicus
                                    |  `-- †Eeretiscus (sic) tonnii
                                    `--+-- †Marplesornis novaezealandiae
                                       `--o Spheniscidae
                                          |--o Aptenodytes
                                          |  |-- A. patagonicus
                                          |  `-- A. forsteri
                                          `--+--o Pygoscelis
                                             |  |-- P. antarcticus
                                             |  `--+-- P. papua
                                             |     `-- P. adeliae
                                             `--+--+-- Eudyptula minor
                                                |  `--o Spheniscus
                                                |     |-- †S. megaramphus
                                                |     |-- †S. urbinai
                                                |     `--+-- S. demersus
                                                |        |-- S. magellanicus
                                                |        `--+-- S. humboldti
                                                |           `-- S. mendiculus
                                                `--+-- Megadyptes antipodes
                                                   `--o Eudyptes
                                                      |-- E. pachyrhynchus
                                                      `--+--+-- E. robustus
                                                         |  `-- E. sclateri
                                                         `--+--+-- E. chrysocome
                                                            |  `-- E. moseleyi
                                                            `--+-- E. schlegeli
                                                               `-- E. chrysolophus

References(s):

  • Clarke, J. A., Ksepka, D. T., Stucchi, M., Urbina, M., Giannini, N., Bertelli, S., NarvŠez, Y. & Boyd, C. A., 2007: Paleogene equatorial penguins challenge the proposed relationship between biogeography, diversity, and Cenozoic climate change.
    –Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences: Vol. 104, #28, pp. 11545-11550 [doi: 10.1073/pnas.0611099104]

After Acosta Hospitaleche, Tambussi, Donato & Cozzuol, 2007 (fig. 8)

<==o Sphenisciformes
   |-- †Paraptenodytes antarcticus
   `--o Spheniscidae
      |--+-- Eudyptula minor
      |  `--o Spheniscus
      |     |--+-- †S. urbinai
      |     |  `-- †S. megaramphus
      |     `--+-- S. mendiculus
      |        |-- S. humboldti
      |        |-- S. demersus
      |        `-- S. magellanicus
      `--+--+-- †Madrynornis mirandus
         |  `--o Eudyptes
         |     |-- E. pachyrhynchus
         |     |-- E. chrysolophus
         |     `-- E. chrysocome
         `--+-- Megadyptes antipodes
            `--+-- Pygoscelis papua
               `--+--+-- Pygoscelis antarcticus
                  |  `-- Pygoscelis adeliae
                  `--+?- †Palaeospheniscus biloculata
                     `--o Aptenodytes
                        |-- A. patagonicus
                        `-- A. forsteri

Reference(s):

Reference(s):