Vitamin C and Infections

Harri Hemilä

Nutrients 2017

Web page for the references of the review

Harri Hemilä
Department of Public Health
University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
This file:
version 2017-4-4


1.Hemilä H. Do vitamins C and E affect respiratory infections? PhD Thesis. University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. 2006.

2.Carpenter KJ. The History of Scurvy and Vitamin C. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 1986.
Carpenter 1986 Cambridge      Carpenter 1986 Amazon   Carpenter 1986 BookReview   Carpenter 1986 BookReview

3.Hess AF. Scurvy: Past and Present. Lippincott: Philadelphia, PA. 1920. A digitalized version is available at the Cornell University Library;idno=2903792    search Author = Hess
Hess 1920 pages 88 and 99

Book reviews:

4.Hess AF. Diet, nutrition and infection. N Engl J Med 1932, 207, 637-648.
Hess 1932 NEJM doi  Hess 1932 ch   Hess 1932 bm

5.Robertson EC. The vitamins and resistance to infection: vitamin C. Medicine 1934, 13, 190-206.
Robertsson 1934 doi    Robertsson 1934 ch    Robertsson 1934 bm
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Clausen 1934

8.Perla D, Marmorston J. Role of vitamin C in resistance. Parts I and II. Arch Pathol 1937, 23, 543-575 and 683-712.
Perla 1937 pt I     Perla 1937 pt II

9.  This web page

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12.Bartley W, Krebs HA, O’Brien JRP. Vitamin C Requirement of Human Adults. A Report by the Vitamin C Subcommittee of the Accessory Food Factors Committee. Spec Rep Ser Med Res Counc (G B) No. 280.  HMSO: London, UK, 1953.
Bartley 1953 ch    Bartley 1953 bm

13.Hodges RE, Hood J, Canham JE, Sauberlich HE, Baker EM. Clinical manifestations of ascorbic acid deficiency in man. Am J Clin Nutr 1971, 24, 432-443.

14.Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine: Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium and Carotenoids. National Academy Press: Washington DC, 2000; pp. 95-185.

15.Segal AW. How neutrophils kill microbes. Annu Rev Immunol 2005, 23, 197-223.

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Akaike 2001 PubMed

17.Peterhans E. Oxidants and antioxidants in viral diseases. J Nutr 1997, 127, 962S-965S.

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Wang 1997 doi     Wang 1997 PubMed  

19.Nualart FJ, Rivas CI, Montecinos VP, Godoy AS, Guaiquil VH, Golde DW, Vera JC. Recycling of vitamin C by a bystander effect. J Biol Chem 2003, 278, 10128-10133.
Nualart 2003 doi         Nualart 2003 PubMed

20.Buffinton GD, Christen S, Peterhans E, Stocker R. Oxidative stress in lungs of mice infected with influenza A virus. Free Rad Res Commun 1992, 16, 99-110.
Buffinton 1992 doi    Buffinton 1992 PubMed   

21.Li W, Maeda N, Beck A. Vitamin C deficiency increases the lung pathology of influenza virus–infected gulo -/- mice. J Nutr 2006, 136, 2611-2616.
Li 2006 J Nutr          Li 2006 PubMed

22.Hosakote YM, Jantzi PD, Esham DL, Spratt H, Kurosky A, Casola A,  Garofalo RP.  Viral-mediated inhibition of antioxidant enzymes contributes to the pathogenesis of severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2011, 183, 1550-1560.

23.Hemilä H. Vitamin C and the common cold. Br J Nutr 1992, 67, 3-16.
Hemilä 1992 Doi   Hemilä 1992         Hemilä 1992 Manu with links to Refs      Hemilä 1992 PubMed

24.Hume R, Weyers E. Changes in leucocyte ascorbic acid during the common cold. Scott Med J 1973, 18, 3-7.
Hume 1973 PubMed

25.Mochalkin NI. Ascorbic acid in the complex therapy of acute pneumonia [in Russian]. Voen Med Zh 1970, 9 (Sep), 17–21.
Mochalkin 1970 translation         Mochalkin 1970 PubMed
       Mochalkin 1970 Russian ch   Mochalkin 1970 Russian bm

26.Hunt C, Chakravorty NK, Annan G, Habibzadeh N, Schorah CJ. The clinical effects of vitamin C supplementation in elderly hospitalised patients with acute respiratory infections. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 1994, 64, 212-219.
Hunt 1994 ch   Hunt 1994 bm   Hunt 1994 PubMed

27.Hemilä H, Louhiala P.  Vitamin C for preventing and treating pneumonia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013, (8), CD005532.


29.Powers SK, Jackson MJ. Exercise-induced oxidative stress: cellular mechanisms and impact on muscle force production. Physiol Rev 2008, 88, 1243–1276.

30.Ashton T, Young IS, Peters JR, Jones E, Jackson SK, Davies B, Rowlands CC. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy, exercise, and oxidative stress: an ascorbic acid intervention study. J Appl Physiol 1999, 87, 2032-2036.

31.Mullins AL, van Rosendal SP, Briskey DR, Fassett RG, Wilson GR, Coombes JS. Variability in oxidative stress biomarkers following a maximal exercise test. Biomarkers 2013, 18, 446-454.

32.Hemilä H. Vitamin C may alleviate exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: a meta-analysis. BMJ Open 2013, 3, e002416.
Hemilä 2013 Doi   Hemilä 2013 PMC    Hemilä 2013 PubMed

33.Hemilä H. The effect of vitamin C on bronchoconstriction and respiratory symptoms caused by exercise: a review and statistical analysis. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol 2014, 10, 58.
Hemilä 2014 Doi   Hemilä 2014 PMC    Hemilä 2014 PubMed

34.LeBlanc J, Stewart M, Marier G, Whillans MG. Studies on acclimatization and on the effect of ascorbic acid in men exposed to cold. Can J Biochem Physiol 1954, 32, 407-427.

35.Dugal LP. Vitamin C in relation to cold temperature tolerance. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1961, 92, 307-317.

36.Strydom NB, Kotze HF, van der Walt WH, Rogers GG. Effect of ascorbic acid on rate of heat acclimatization. J Appl Physiol 1976, 41, 202-205.

37.Chang CY, Chen JY, Chen SH, Cheng TJ, Lin MT, Hu ML. Therapeutic treatment with ascorbate rescues mice from heat stroke-induced death by attenuating systemic inflammatory response and hypothalamic neuronal damage. Free Radic Biol Med. 2016, 93, 84-93.

38.Holley AD, Osland E, Barnes J, Krishnan A, Fraser JF. Scurvy: historically a plague of the sailor that remains a consideration in the modern intensive care unit. Internal Med J 2011, 41, 283–285.
Holley 2011 PubMed

39.Smith A, Di Primio G, Humphrey-Murto S. Scurvy in the developed world. CMAJ 2011, 183, E752–E752.

40.Raynaud-Simon A, Cohen-Bittan J, Gouronnec A, Pautas E, Senet P, Verny M, Boddaert J. Scurvy in hospitalized elderly patients. J Nutr Health Aging 2010, 14, 407–410.
Raynaud-Simon 2010 doi     Raynaud-Simon 2010 PubMed

41.Hemilä H, Louhiala P. Vitamin C may affect lung infections. J R Soc Med 2007, 100, 495-498.
Hemilä 2007 doi   Hemilä 2007 PMC

42.Beisel WR. Single nutrients and immunity: vitamin C. Am J Clin Nutr 1982, 35(Feb suppl), 423-428 and 460-461.
Beisel 1982  AJCN

43.Webb AL, Villamor E. Update: effects of antioxidant and non-antioxidant vitamin supplementation on immune function. Nutr Rev 2007, 65, 181–217.
Webb 2007 doi

44.Manning J, Mitchell B, Appadurai DA, Shakya A, Pierce LJ, Wang H, Nganga V, Swanson PC, May JM, Tantin D, Spangrude GJ. Vitamin C promotes maturation of T-cells. Antioxid Redox Signal 2013, 19, 2054-2067.
Manning 2013 doi    Manning 2013 PMC     Manning 2013 PubMed

45.Jones E, Hughes RE. Influence of oral carnitine on the body weight and survival time of avitaminotic-C guinea pigs. Nutr Rep Int 1982, 25:201-204.
Jones 1982 ch     Jones 1982 bm

46.Mårtensson J, Han J, Griffith OW, Meister A. Glutathione ester delays the onset of scurvy in ascorbate-deficient guinea pigs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1993, 90, 317-321.

47.Padh H. Cellular functions of ascorbic acid. Biochem Cell Biol 1990, 68, 1166-1173.

48.Rebouche CJ. Ascorbic acid and carnitine biosynthesis. Am J Clin Nutr 1991, 54, 1147S-1152S.

49.Rice ME. Ascorbate regulation and its neuroprotective role in the brain. Trends Neurol Sci 2000, 23, 209-216.
Rice 2000 doi  Rice 2000 PubMed

50.May JM, Harrison FE. Role of vitamin C in the function of the vascular endothelium. Antioxid Redox Signal 2013, 19, 2068-2083.
May 2013 doi   May 2013 PMC   May 2013 PubMed

51.Kinsman RA, Hood J. Some behavioral effects of ascorbic acid deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr 1971, 24, 455-464.
Kinsman 1971 AJCN

52.Zhang M, Robitaille L, Eintracht S, Hoffer LJ. Vitamin C provision improves mood in acutely hospitalized patients. Nutrition 2011, 27, 530–533.
Zhang 2011 doi   Zhang_2011 PubMed

53.Wang Y, Liu XJ, Robitaille L, Eintracht S, MacNamara E, Hoffer LJ. Effects of vitamin C and vitamin D administration on mood and distress in acutely hospitalized patients. Am J Clin Nutr 2013, 98, 705-711.
Wang 2013 doi    Wang 2013 PubMed

54.Hemilä H, Kaprio J. Subgroup analysis of large trials can guide further research: a case study of vitamin E and pneumonia. Clin Epidemiol 2011, 3, 51-59.
Hemilä 2011 Doi   Hemilä 2011 PMC    Hemilä 2011 PubMed

55.Hemilä H. Vitamin E and the risk of pneumonia: using the I2-statistic to quantify heterogeneity within a controlled trial. Br J Nutr 2016, 116, 1530-1536.

56.Hemilä H, Virtamo J, Albanes D, Kaprio J. The effect of vitamin E on common cold incidence is modified by age, smoking and residential neighborhood. J Am Coll Nutr 2006, 25, 332-339.
Hemilä 2006 Doi    Hemilä 2006 PubMed 

57.McConkey M, Smith DT. The relation of vitamin C deficiency to intestinal tuberculosis in the guinea pig. J Exp Med 1933, 58, 503-517.

58.Dey PK. Efficacy of vitamin C in counteracting tetanus toxin toxicity. Naturwissenschaften 1966, 53, 310.
Dey 1966 Doi     Dey 1966 ch    Dey 1966   Dey 1966 bm    Dey 1966 PubMed

59.Belfield WO. Vitamin C in treatment of canine and feline distemper complex. Vet Med Small Anim Clin 1967, 62, 345-348.

60.Leveque JI. Ascorbic acid in treatment of the canine distemper complex. Vet Med Small Anim Clin 1969, 64, 997-1001.

61.Eccles R. Is the common cold a clinical entity or a cultural concept? Rhinology 2013, 51, 3-8.

62.Monto AS, Ullman BM. Acute respiratory illness in an American community: the Tecumseh Study. JAMA 1974, 227, 164-169.

63.Fendrick AM, Monto AS, Nightengale B, Sarnes M. The economic burden of non-influenza-related viral respiratory tract infection in the United States. Arch Int Med 2003, 163, 487-494.

64.Pauling L. Vitamin C and the Common Cold. Freeman: San Francisco, CA, 1970.
   Links to book reviews of the 1970 book
   A short background to the book 

65.Pauling L. The significance of the evidence about ascorbic acid and the common cold. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1971, 68, 2678-2681.
Pauling 1971 Doi      Pauling 1971 PMC   

Pauling 1971 manuscript

66.Pauling L. Ascorbic acid and the common cold. Am J Clin Nutr 1971, 24, 1294-1299.
Pauling 1971 AJCN

67.Ritzel G. Critical analysis of the role of vitamin C in the treatment of the common cold [in German]. Helv Med Acta 1961, 28, 63-68. 
Ritzel 1961 Translation    Ritzel  1961 PubMed
  Ritzel 1961 in German ch    Ritzel 1961 in German bm
  Ritzel 1976 DOI       Ritzel 1976 Letter ch    Ritzel 1976  PubMed 
  Ritzel biography ch   Ritzel biography bm

     Pauling's analysis

68.Hemilä H, Chalker E. Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013, (1), CD000980.


70.Hemilä H. Vitamin C supplementation and common cold symptoms: problems with inaccurate reviews. Nutrition 1996, 12, 804-809.
Hemilä 1996 Doi    Hemila 1996    Hemilä 1996 Manu with links to Refs    Hemilä 1996 PubMed

71.Chalmers TC. Effects of ascorbic acid on the common cold: an evaluation of the evidence. Am J Med 1975, 58, 532-536.
Chalmers 1975 Doi    Chalmers 1975 PubMed    Chalmers 1975 ch    Chalmers 1975 bm

72.Karlowski TR, Chalmers TC, Frenkel LD, Kapikian AZ, Lewis TL, Lynch JM. Ascorbic acid for the common cold: a prophylactic and therapeutic trial. JAMA 1975, 231, 1038-1042.
Karlowski 1975 Doi   Karlowski 1975 ch    Karlowski 1975 bm     Karlowski 1975 PubMed
        Additional data published in Lewis 1975 Doi    Lewis 1975 ch    Lewis 1975 PubMed
        See a re-analysis of the Karlowski trial by Hemilä 1996   and   Hemilä 2006
        and analysis of dose dependency in  Hemilä 1999a 
        See comments on the re-analysis by Chalmers (1996)
        See reply to Chalmers by Hemilä (1996)
        See further statistical comments of the Karlowski trial in  Hemilä 2006 Stat Med   Hemilä 2006 Stat Med  manu

73.Dykes MHM, Meier P. Ascorbic acid and the common cold: evaluation of its efficacy and toxicity. JAMA 1975, 231, 1073-1079.
Dykes 1975 Doi     Dykes 1975  Dykes 1975 PubMed   Dykes 1975 ch

74.Hemilä H. Vitamin C intake and susceptibility to the common cold. Br J Nutr 1997, 77, 59-72.
Hemilä 1997 Doi    Hemilä 1997    Hemilä 1997 Manu with links to Refs    Hemilä 1997 PubMed 

75.Bates CJ, Schorah CJ, Hemilä H. Vitamin C intake and susceptibility to the common cold: Invited comments and Reply. Br J Nutr 1997, 78, 857-866.
1997 comments  1997 comments

76.Hemilä H. Vitamin C and common cold incidence: a review of studies with subjects under heavy physical stress. Int J Sports Med 1996, 17, 379-383.
Hemilä 1996 Doi   Hemilä 1996     Hemilä 1996 Manu with links to Refs    Hemilä 1996 PubMed

77.Hemilä H. Vitamin C and sex differences in respiratory tract infections. Resp Med 2008, 102, 625-626.
Hemilä 2008 Doi   Hemila 2008   Hemilä 2008 Manu with links to refs

78.Baird IM, Hughes RE, Wilson HK, Davies JE, Howard AN. The effects of ascorbic acid and flavonoids on the occurrence of symptoms normally associated with the common cold. Am J Clin Nutr 1979, 32, 1686-1690.
Baird 1979 AJCN   Baird 1979 PubMed

79.Johnston CS, Barkyoumb GM, Schumacher SS. Vitamin C supplementation slightly improves physical activity levels and reduces cold incidence in men with marginal vitamin C status: a randomized controlled trial. Nutrients 2014, 6, 2572-2583.
Johnston 2014 DOI     Johnston 2014 PMC     Johnston 2014 PubMed
     Johnston 2014 Abstract
     Osterday 2011 MSc thesis

80.Anderson TW, Reid DBW, Beaton GH. Vitamin C and the common cold: a double-blind trial. Can Med Assoc J 1972, 107, 503-508.
Anderson 1972 PMC  *    Correction 1: (1973);108:133    Correction 2: (1973);108:492
   Anderson 1972 ch
   Anderson 1975 AnnNY
   Beaton 1971 PMC
   Preshaw 1972 PMC
   Spero 1973 letter BMJ

     Pauling's analysis

81.Coulehan JL, Reisinger KS, Rogers KD, Bradley DW. Vitamin C prophylaxis in a boarding school. N Engl J Med 1974, 290, 6-10.
Coulehan 1974 Doi   Coulehan 1974 ch   Coulehan 1974 bm     Coulehan 1974 PubMed

82.Van Straten M, Josling P. Preventing the common cold with a vitamin C supplement: a double-blind, placebo-controlled survey. Adv Ther 2002, 19, 151-159.
Van Straten 2002 Doi   Van Straten 2002 PubMed

83.Hemilä H. Vitamin C supplementation and common cold symptoms: factors affecting the magnitude of the benefit. Med Hypotheses 1999, 52, 171-178.
Hemilä 1999 Doi    Hemilä 1999   Hemilä 1999 Manu with links to Refs   Hemilä 1999 PubMed

84.Anderson TW, Suranyi G, Beaton GH. The effect on winter illness of large doses of vitamin C. Can Med Assoc J 1974, 111, 31-36.
Anderson 1974 PMC    Anderson 1974 ch

     Pauling's analysis

85.Anderson TW, Beaton GH, Corey PN, Spero L. Winter illness and vitamin C: the effect of relatively low doses. Can Med Assoc J 1975, 112, 823-826.
Anderson 1975 PMC    Anderson 1975 ch

86.Constantini NW, Dubnov-Raz G, Eyal BB, Berry EM, Cohen AH, Hemilä H. The effect of vitamin C on upper respiratory infections in adolescent swimmers: a randomized trial. Eur J Pediatrics 2011, 170, 59-63.
Constantini 2011 Doi   Constantini 2011 PubMed   Constantini 2011 Handle  

87.Carr AB, Einstein R, Lai YC, Martin NG, Starmer GA. Vitamin C and the common cold: A second MZ co-twin control study. Acta Genet Med Gemellol 1981, 30, 249-255.
Carr 1981 (1200 KB)    Carr 1981 PubMed     Carr 1981 ch    Carr 1981 bm     
   Carr 1981 MJA ch    Carr 1981 MJA bm       Carr 1981 MJA PubMed

88.Bee DM. The vitamin C controversy. Postgrad Med 1980, 67(2), 64.

89.Cathcart RF. Vitamin C, titrating to bowel tolerance, anascorbemia, and acute induced scurvy. Med Hypotheses 1981, 7, 1359-1376.
Cathcart 1981 doi   Cathcart 1981 PubMed  paper available via links
Luberoff 1978 ch       Luberoff 1978 bm

90.Gern JE. The ABCs of rhinoviruses, wheezing, and asthma. J Virol 2010, 84, 7418–7426.

91.Hemilä H. Vitamin C and common cold-induced asthma: a systematic review and statistical analysis. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol 2013, 9, 46.

92.Anah CO, Jarike LN, Baig HA. High dose ascorbic acid in Nigerian asthmatics. Trop Geogr Med 1980, 32, 132–137.

93.Schertling M, Winsel K, Müller S, Henning R, Meiske W, Slapke J. Action of ascorbic acid on clinical course of infection related bronchial asthma and on reactive oxygen metabolites by BAL cells [in German]. Z Klin Med 1990, 45, 1770–1774.

94.Bucca C, Rolla G, Arossa W, Caria E, Elia C, Nebiolo F, Baldi S. Effect of ascorbic acid on increased bronchial responsiveness during upper airway infection. Respiration 1989, 55, 214–219.

95.Miegl H. Acute upper respiratory tract infection and its treatment with vitamin C [in German]. Wien Med Wochenschr 1957, 107, 989-992.

96.Miegl H. About the use of vitamin C in otorhinolaryngology [in German]. Wien Med Wochenschr 1958, 108, 859-864.

97.Glazebrook AJ, Thomson S. The administration of vitamin C in a large institution and its effect on general health and resistance to infection. J Hyg (Lond) 1942, 42, 1-19.
Glazebrook 1942_PMC    Glazebrook 1942 ch    Glazebrook 1942 tables
     Comment in BMJ 1942 June by the authors
     Comment in BMJ 1942 commentary
     Comment in BMJ 1942 Nov by the authors
     Comment in BMJ 1944 Nov by the authors  
     Description of the study backgound via an earlier paper in J Hyg (1941)

     Pauling's analysis

98.Sabiston BH, Radomski MW. Health Problems and Vitamin C in Canadian Northern Military Operations. DCIEM Report no. 74-R-1012. Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine: Downsview, Ontario, Canada 1974.
Sabiston 1974 ch    Sabiston 1974 bm    Sabiston 1974 DRDS   Sabiston 1974 Abstract  

99.Peters EM, Goetzsche JM, Grobbelaar B, Noakes TD. Vitamin C supplementation reduces the incidence of postrace symptoms of upper-respiratory-tract infection in ultramarathon runners. Am J Clin Nutr 1993, 57, 170-174.
Peters 1993 AJCN       Peters 1993 PubMed     Peters 1994 Letter AJCN     Peters 1994 Letter

100.Cowan DW, Diehl HS, Baker AB. Vitamins for the prevention of colds. JAMA 1942, 120, 1268-1271.
Cowan 1942 Doi    Cowan 1942 ch   Cowan 1942 bm

     Pauling's analysis

101.Miller JZ, Nance WE, Norton JA, Wolen RL, Griffith RS, Rose RJ. Therapeutic effect of vitamin C: a co-twin control study. JAMA 1977, 237, 248-251.
Miller 1977 Doi    Miller 1977 ch  Miller 1977 bm   Miller 1977 PubMed 
       Discussion1   Discussion2

102.Liberati A. Thomas C Chalmers. Lancet 1996, 347, 188.

103.Dickersin K. Thomas Clark Chalmers. JAMA 1996, 276, 656-657.

See also:
Ann Intern Med 1996;124:696
Cont Clin Trials 1996;17:474-5        and  1996;17:471-2 and   1996;17:473-4
Can Med Assoc J 1996;155:757-60  and  1996;155: 986-8

104.Pincock S. Paul Meier. Lancet 2011, 378, 978.

105.Betts K. Paul Meier: A man behind the method. Am J Public Health 2012, 102, 2026–2029.

See also:

106.Hemilä H. Vitamin C, the placebo effect, and the common cold: a case study of how preconceptions influence the analysis of results. J Clin Epidemiol 1996, 49, 1079-1084.
Hemilä 1996 Doi  Hemilä 1996      Hemilä 1996 Manu with links to Refs     Hemilä 1996 PubMed

107.Hemilä H. Analysis of clinical data with breached blindness. Stat Med 2006, 25, 1434-1437.
Hemilä 2006 Doi    Hemilä 2006 manuscript    Hemilä  2006 PubMed 

108.Chalmers TC. Dissent to the preceding article by H. Hemilä. J Clin Epidemiol 1996, 49, 1085.
Chalmers 1996   Hemilä 1996 OCR

109.Hemilä H. To the dissent by Thomas Chalmers. J Clin Epidemiol 1996, 49, 1087.
Hemilä 1996 DOI   Hemilä 1996 Manu with links to Refs    Hemilä 1996 OCR

110.Hemilä H, Herman ZS. Vitamin C and the common cold: a retrospective analysis of Chalmers’ review. J Am Coll Nutr 1995, 14, 116-123.
Hemilä 1995 Doi   Hemilä 1995 OCR   Hemilä 1995 PubMed

111.Pauling L. Ascorbic acid and the common cold: evaluation of its efficacy and toxicity. Part I. Medical Tribune 1976, 17(12), 18-19.
Pauling 1976_I

112.Pauling L. Ascorbic acid and the common cold. Part II. Medical Tribune 1976, 17(13), 37-38.
Pauling 1976_II

113.AMA. Council of Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association: Vitamin preparations as dietary supplements and as therapeutic agents. JAMA 1987, 257, 1929-1936.
JAMA 257:1929-36   Extract

See other examples of Chalmers (1975) usage in textbooks etc

114.Gander J, Niederberger W. Vitamin C in the treatment of pneumonia [in German]. Münch Med Wochenschr 1936, 83, 2074-2077. Translation at:

115.Bohnholtzer E. Contribution to the question of pneumonia treatment with vitamin C [in German]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1937, 63, 1001–1003. Translation at:

116.Hochwald A. Vitamin C in the treatment of croupous pneumonia [in German]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1937, 63, 182–184.

117.Klenner FR. Virus pneumonia and its treatment with vitamin C. South Med Surg 1948, 110, 36-8 and 46.
Klenner 1948 ch     Klenner 1948   Klenner 1948 bm   paper available via links

118.Klenner FR. Massive doses of vitamin C and the virus diseases. South Med Surg 1951, 113, 101-107.
Klenner 1951 ch     Klenner 1951   Klenner 1951 bm    paper available via links

119.Dalton WL. Massive doses of vitamin C in the treatment of viral diseases. J Indiana State Med Assoc 1962, 55, 1151-1154.
Dalton 1962 ch    Dalton 1962    Dalton 1962 bm   Dalton 1962 PubMed  

120. Hemilä H. Vitamin C and susceptibility to pneumonia. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1997
Hemilä 1997 doi     Hemilä 1997 manu with links to Refs   Hemilä 1997

121.Kimbarowski JA, Mokrow NJ. Colored precipitation reaction of the urine according to Kimbarowski as an index of the effect of ascorbic acid during treatment of viral influenza [in German]. Deutsch Gesundheitsw 1967, 22, 2413-2418.
Kimbarowski 1967 translation   Kimbarowski 1967 PubMed
    Kimbarowski 1967 German ch     Kimbarowski 1967 German bm

122.Pitt HA, Costrini AM. Vitamin C prophylaxis in marine recruits. JAMA 1979, 241, 908-911.
Pitt 1979 doi     Pitt 1979 PubMed

123.Merchant AT, Curhan G, Bendich A, Singh VN, Willett WC, Fawzi WW. Vitamin intake is not associated with community-acquired pneumonia in US men. J Nutr 2004, 134, 439–444.
Merchant 2004

124.Hemilä H, Virtamo J, Albanes D, Kaprio J. Vitamin E and beta-carotene supplementation and hospital-treated pneumonia incidence in male smokers. Chest 2004, 125, 557-565.
Hemilä 2004 doi

125.Pazzaglia G, Pasternack M. Recent trends of pneumonia morbidity in US Naval personnel. Mil Med 1983, 148, 647–651.
Pazzaglia 1983 ch          Pazzaglia 1983 bm

126.Paynter S, Ware RS, Weinstein P, Williams G, Sly PD. Childhood pneumonia: a neglected, climate-sensitive disease? Lancet 2010, 376, 1804–1805.
Paynter 2010 doi            Paynter 2010 PubMed

127.Hemilä H. Vitamin C supplementation and respiratory infections: a systematic review. Mil Med 2004, 169, 920-925.
Hemilä 2004 Doi      Hemilä 2004    Hemilä 2004 PubMed

128.Klenner FR. Recent discoveries in the treatment of lockjaw with vitamin C and tolserol. Tri-State Medical Journal 1954, 2(July), 7–11.
Klenner 1954_ch    Klenner 1954   Klenner 1954_bm

129.Hemilä H, Koivula T. Vitamin C for preventing and treating tetanus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013, (11), CD006665.


131.Jahan K, Ahmad K, Ali MA. Effect of ascorbic acid in the treatment of tetanus. Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull 1984, 10, 24-28.
Jahan 1984 ch    Jahan 1984    Jahan 1984 bm     Jahan 1984 PubMed

132.Hemilä H. Vitamin C supplementation and the common cold - was Linus Pauling right or wrong? Int J Vitamin Nutrition Res 1997, 67, 329-335.
Hemilä 1997    Hemilä 1997 Manu with links to Refs   Hemilä 1997 PubMed

133.Stone I. The Healing Factor: Vitamin C Against Disease. Grosset Dunlap: NY, NY, 1972.
book available via links

134.Briggs M. Vitamin C and infectious disease: a review of the literature and the results of a randomized, double-blind, prospective study over 8 years. In: Recent Vitamin Research [Briggs MH, ed]. CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, 1984; pp. 39-82.
Briggs 1984 ch   Briggs 1984 bm       Briggs 1984 Ref List

135.Levy TE. Vitamin C, Infectious Diseases, and Toxins. Xlibris: Philadelphia, PA, 2002.

136.Terezhalmy GT, Bottomley WK, Pelleu GB. The use of water-soluble bioflavonoid-ascorbic acid complex in the treatment of recurrent herpes labialis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1978, 45, 56-62.

137.Chen JY, Chang CY, Feng PH, Chu CC, So EC, Hu ML. Plasma vitamin C is lower in postherpetic neuralgia patients and administration of vitamin C reduces spontaneous pain but not brush-evoked pain. Clin J Pain 2009, 25, 562-569.

138.Orient JM. Treating herpes zoster with vitamin C: two case reports. J Am Physicians Surgeons 2006, 11, 26-27.

139.Byun SH, Jeon Y. Administration of vitamin C in a patient with herpes zoster - a case report. Korean J Pain 2011, 24, 108-111.

140.Schencking M, Sandholzer H, Frese T. Intravenous administration of vitamin C in the treatment of herpetic neuralgia: two case reports. Med Sci Monit. 2010, 16, CS58-CS61.

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